2 Samuel 7:3-5 (ESV) And Nathan said to the king, "Go, do all that is in your heart, for the LORD is with you." But that same night the word of the LORD came to Nathan, "Go and tell my servant David, 'Thus says the LORD: Would you build me a house to dwell in? (7:11b) Moreover, the LORD declares to you that the LORD will make you a house.”
2 Samuel 7:12-16 “When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, who shall come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be to him a father, and he shall be to me a son. When he commits iniquity, I will discipline him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men, but my steadfast love will not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before you. And your house and your kingdom shall be made sure forever before me. Your throne shall be established forever.'”
Outline. With the death of Saul at the hands of the Philistines, David is crowned king of Israel. After he defeated the Philistines, David decided to bring the ark to Jerusalem. Though the first attempt ended disastrously due to disobedience, the ark was successfully transferred to the capitol with flamboyant celebrating. Once the ark rested in Jerusalem, David felt guilty living in a palace while the ark remained in a tent after all that God had done for him. The prophet Nathan blessed the idea of building a house for The Lord until God spoke to him and denied David, but promised to build David a house due to his sincere and heartfelt devotion.
Historical Context. David's total reign lasted from 1010 to 970BC, with the first seven years being limited just to Judah (Elwell, 192)1. David was Israel's second king after God removed His blessing from Saul, Israel's first appointed king after hundreds of years of ruling judges which ended with the Samuel. Saul was chosen by God when the people rejected Him as their King in order to be like all the other nations. Saul started out well, but later rebelled against God, losing His favor. The shepherd boy David was anointed and thrust into Saul's household where he honored Saul (despite plots against his life) until Saul was ultimately killed by the Philistines.
Message Summary. God promises to fulfill His plan of salvation through the arrival of His son Jesus Christ and His Kingdom through David's and his descendants.
Dominant Theme. The establishment of the Davidic Kingdom is sealed with a Covenant in which God promised to establish the Kingdom of God through David's line. The Kingdom theme stands most prominent in this passage due to the words and imagery God uses to describe His promise. The preceding verses (8-11) set a geopolitical context, calling David “ruler” and describing God's provision in securing David's exploits against his enemies. However, after God's promise refers to David's political successors it then speaks of the Promised Messiah and the establishment of His kingdom. The Messiah's kingdom is thus established “forever” as the continuation of David's kingdom.
OT & NT Correlation. God's covenant with David builds upon the covenants He already established with the members of His chosen people at Kadesh-barnea (Deuteronomy) and Mt. Sinai (Exodus 20:1). God's promise of His son who would reign harkens clear back to Genesis 12:3 where God called Abraham and promised him a mighty nation and even Genesis 3 with God's promise of “the seed” of the woman. This covenant is referred back to throughout the history of Israel, for David's lineage continues uninterrupted till the exile and each king is compared to King David. The promised ruler became the foundation for many of the prophesies regarding the one who would rule “with justice and righteousness” (Isaiah 9:7) as the Spirit of the Lord rested upon him (Isaiah 11:2). The promise of the coming king who would reestablish David's everlasting kingdom became the hope all devout Jews relied upon during their exile and subjugation to foreign rulers. However, many missed Jesus as the King and the dawning of His Kingdom because they misunderstood the fulfillment of this promise to be a literal earthly kingdom. John the Baptist built upon this language as he announced the coming of the Christ, who in turn primarily preached about the Kingdom of God. After completing His mission on the cross, Jesus was then resurrected and took His place at the Father's right hand, where He reigns to this day over the Kingdom of God.